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Chapter 1. Page: 1|2
THE VERSE OF PURIFICATION IN SUNNI SOURCES

 

In The Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

REVELATION OF THE VERSE

In his book entitled ‘Mustadrak Sahihayn’ Hakim quotes from son of Ja’far son of Abu Talib1 as saying :

‘When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) observed that the Divine blessing was forthcoming he said, ‘Call for me! Call for me!’ Safia asked ‘O Prophet of Allah! Whom should I call for you? He said, ‘Call for me the members of my family, namely, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husain’ (May peace and benediction be upon them). They were thus called to come close to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and when all of them were gathered, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) placed his cloak on them and thereafter raised his hands in supplication and said, ‘O Allah! These are the members of my family. Send your kind blessings on me and my progeny’. In the meantime Almighty Allah revealed the verse: ‘O people of the Prophet’s House! Allah intends but to remove all sorts of uncleanness and blemish from you and to purify you with a thorough purification.’ (Sura Ahzaab : 33)

After quoting this hadith Hakim says, ‘This hadith is authentic and correct as regards its sources.’

TYPE AND KIND OF KISA

(a) According to the hadith quoted by Umm al-Momineen Ayesha:

Muslim (in ‘Sahih’), Hakim2 (in ‘Mustadrak’), Baihaqui (in ‘Sunan al-Kubra’) and Tabari,

IbneKathir and Suyuti (in their ‘Tafsirs’) quote from Ayesha3 with regard to this verse as having said :

‘One day the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) came out of the house4 carrying a printed cloak on his shoulder. At that time Hasan (a.s.) came upto him and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) accommodated him under the cloak. Then came Husain (a.s.) and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) accommodated him, too, under the cloak. Thereafter, Fatima (s.a.) approached and was accommodated under the cloak. Ali (a.s.) was the last to come and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) accommodated him also under the cloak. Thereafter, he (the Holy Prophet) recited this sacred verse: ‘O People of the Prophet’s House! Allah intends but to remove all sorts of uncleanness and blemish from you and to purify you with a thorough purification.’ (Sura Ahzaab : 33)

(b) According to the hadith quoted by Umm al-Momineen Umme Salma.5

In his ‘Tafsir’, Tabari has quoted Umme Salma as having said in connection with the sacred verse in question as under: -

‘When the verse, ‘O People of the Prophet’s House!’ was revealed the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) called Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husain (May peace and benediction be upon them) to himself and covered them under his cloak.’

In another hadith Umme Salma is reported to have said: ‘He placed his cloak on them.’ This hadith has also been quoted by Suyuti in his ‘Tafsir’ and has similarly been narrated by Ibn Kathir in his ‘Tafsir’.

POSITION OF THE PEOPLE OF THE PROPHET’S FAMILY UNDER THE CLOAK

(a) As narrated by Umar son of Abu Salma:

Tabari and IbneKathir (in their ‘Tafsirs’), Tirmizi (in his ‘Sahih’) and Tahavi (in ‘Mushkil al-Athar’) have quoted ‘Umar6 son of Abu Salma as having said:

‘The verse, ‘O People of the Prophet’s House! ...’ was revealed to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in the house of Umme Salma. After the revelation of this verse the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) called Hasan, Husain, and Fatima (s.a.) and made them sit in front of himself. Then he called Ali (a.s.) as well and made him sit behind his back. Then he covered himself and all of them with his cloak and said: ‘These are the People of my House. O Allah! Keep uncleanness away from them and make them clean and pure!’

(b) As narrated by Wasilat son of Asqaa7 and Umme Salma:

Hakim (in ‘Mustadrak’) and Haithami (in ‘Majma al-Zawaid’) have quoted from Wasilat son of Asqaa that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) made Ali (a.s.) and Fatima (s.a.) sit in front of himself and placed Hasan (a.s.) and Husain (a.s.) on his knees or took them in his arms. And this hadith had also been quoted by Ibne Kathir and Suyuti (in their ‘Tafsirs’) and Bahiqui (in ‘Sunan’) and Ahmad bin Hanbal (in ‘Musnad’).

PLACE WHERE MEMBERS OF THE HOLY PROPHET’S HOUSE ASSEMBLED TOGETHER

(a) As narrated in the hadith quoted by Abu Saeed Khudri:8

Suyuti has quoted Abu Saeed in ‘Durr al-Manthur’ as having said, ‘The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was in the house of Umme Salma when Jibraeel descended and brought the verse, ‘O People of the Prophet’s House.......’

Abu Saeed says, ‘At that time the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) called Hasan, Husain, Fatima, and Ali (Peace be upon them) and made them come near him and spread his cloak on them when Umme Salma too, was sitting behind the curtain. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: ‘O Allah! These are the members of my family. Keep uncleanness away from them and make them pure’.

(b) As narrated in the hadith quoted by Umm al-Momineen Umme Salma:

Ibne Kathir, Suyuti, Bahiqui, Tahavi and Khateeb in ‘Tareekh al-Baghdad’ have quoted Umme Salma as having said, ‘The verse, ‘O People of the Prophet’s House.....’, was revealed in my house and Fatima, Ali, Hasan, and Husain (a.s.) were in the room. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) spread his cloak on them and said: ‘These are the members of my family. (O Allah!) Remove uncleanness from them and make them pure’. And Hakim too has quoted Umme Salma in ‘Mustadrak’ as having said, ‘This verse was revealed in my house’.

Umme Salma has been quoted in the following books:-

Tirmizi narrated in his ‘Sahih’ in the chapter relating to the attainments of Fatima (s.a.) and similarly in ‘Riaz al-Nuzrah’ and ‘Tehzib al-Tehzib’ that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, ‘O Allah! These are the members of my family. Ward off uncleanness from them and make them pure.’

Ahmad also narrates in his ‘Musnad’ that Umme Salma said, ‘I put my head into the room and asked, ‘Am I also among you?’ The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, ‘You have a good future’.

Hakim, too, narrates that Umme Salma said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! Am I not one of the members of your family?’ The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) replied: ‘You have a good future but only these are the members of my family. O Lord! The members of my family are more deserving.’

HOW MANY PERSONS WERE PRESENT IN THE HOUSE WHEN THE VERSE WAS REVEALED?

In the ‘Tafsir’ of Suyuti and in ‘Mushkil al-Athar’ Umme Salma has been quoted to have said: ‘The verse, ‘O People of the Prophet’s House!.....’ was revealed in my house and at that time there were seven persons present in the room namely (besides the Holy Prophet) Jibraeel, Mikaeel, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain (May peace and benediction be upon them) and I was standing at the door of the house and said:

‘O Prophet of Allah! Am I not one of the members of your family?’ He replied, ‘You have a good future and you are one of the wives of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.).’

IN WHAT POSITION AND POSTURE WERE THE MEMBERS OF THE HOLY PROPHET’S FAMILY WHEN THE VERSE WAS REVEALED?

In ‘Tafsir’ of Tabari, Abu Saeed Khudri is reported to have narrated that Umme Salma had said, ‘This verse was revealed in my house and I was sitting at the door of the house.’ It has also been narrated in the same ‘Tafsir’ that Umme Salma said, ‘The members of the Holy Prophet’s family gathered around him and he covered them with a cloak which he was carrying on his shoulder and said, ‘These are the members of my family. Ward off uncleanness from them and make them pure’. And this verse was revealed when they were sitting on the ground. I said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! Am I not also one of the members of your family?’ I swear by the Almighty that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not grant me any distinction and said: ‘You have a good future’.

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1 The mother of Abd Allah son of Ja’far son of Abu Talib was Asma daughter of ‘Umais Khasamayya.’ He was born in Ethiopia and saw the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). He died at the age of 80 years. His biography is recorded in Usud Al-Ghaba (Vol. 2 Page 33)

2 Abu Abd Allah Muhammad son of Abd Allah of Nishapur, popularly known as Hakim, is one of the traditionalists and is held in much esteem by the Sunnites. He passed away in 405 A.H.

3 Ayesha was the daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) married her seventeen months after his migration to Medina. She passed away in 57,58 or 59 A.H. (exact year is not known) and Abu Hurayrah led her funeral prayer. She was buried in Baqi. For her biography please refer to the book entitled ‘Ahadis-i-Ayesha’.

4 Perhaps Ayesha meant to say that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) came out of her house with the cloak and went to the house of Umme Salma.

5 Umme Salma Hind, daughter of Ubi Omayyah Qurayshi Makhzumi had the honour of marrying the Holy prophet (s.a.w.s.) after the death of her husband Abu Salma son of Abd al-Asad. Her husband Abu Salma died as a result of a wound sustained by him in the Battle of Ohad. She passed away after the martyrdom of Imam Husain (a.s.). The life history of Umme Salma is recorded in ‘Usud al-Ghaba’ and ‘Tehzib al-Tehzib’.

6 Umar was the son of Umm al-Momineen Umme Salma from her first husband (Abu Salma). He (Umar) was born in Ethiopia. He was one among the followers of Imam Ali (a.s.) in the Battle of Siffin and was also appointed by him as the Governor of Bahrain and Fars. Umar passed away in Medina in 83 A.H. For his biography please refer to ‘Usud al-Ghaba’ (Vol.V page 79).

7 For his biography refer to ‘Usud al-Ghaba’ (Vol. V, page 77.

8 Abu Saeed Khudri Khazraji. His name was Saeed son of Malik Ansari. He participated in the Battle of the Ditch and in other battles. He died in Medina when he was above 60 years or 70 years of age. His biography appears in ‘Usud al- Ghaba’ (Vol. II, page 289).

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